Letterhead of the White Paper with incorrect date for the constitution of the MWPHGL of Massachusetts
An effective refutation isn’t based on whether you can “poke holes” in the opposition’s position, but rather can you prove your own. My object isn’t to prove that the MWPHGLMA got it wrong, which will be evident in the presentation of events from the Archive of African Lodge No. 459. My object is to educate the general, as well as the Masonic public to the truth of the events according to the existing documentation.
The nature of the debate between myself and the historical committee of the Most Worshipful Prince Hall Grand Lodge of Massachusetts (hereafter called MWPHGLMA) is historical. And being so, there is a necessity to provide a context for my rebuttal to the White Paper. I am convinced that the MWPHGLMA historical committee does not truly have a position regarding their own history.
This will become evident as we review the development of the historical narrative of the MWPHGLMA and the history written by Grand Historian, Bro. Ray T. Coleman, that is appended to their website, and accepted by them as their official history.
Researchers and Historians must understand Masonic research 101. A historical narrative is no stronger or valid than the documentation that supports it.
It must also be pointed out that this is not the first time a start date, in connection to the MWPHGLMA, has been shifted based on the initial date being inaccurate with authentic history. It is the date of the start of their Grand Lodge.
Mural in the Grand Lodge building of the MWPHGLMA
The well-known mural painted on the wall of the Grand Lodge building of the MWPHGLMA states that they are the MOTHER GRAND LODGE:
The MWPHGLMA initially believed that their Grand Lodge was formed in 1791, with the constituent Lodges being African Lodge No. 459 Boston, African Lodge No. 459 Philadelphia and Hiram Lodge No. 3 in Providence, RI.
Grand Lodge Banner that hangs in the Grand Lodge building of the MWPHGLMA
That date has now been changed to 1808 as reflected on the letter-head of the White Paper published by their historical committee.
Letterhead of the White Paper published by the MWPHGLMA historical committee
The Politics of the 1791 date
It is indisputable fact that African Lodge No. 459 received a charter from the Grand Lodge of England in 1787 (1784 granted). It is equally verifiable that by 1792 African Lodge in Boston was one of 13 subordinate Lodges in Massachusetts established under the Grand Lodge of England’s (Modern) jurisdiction. They were the only Lodge in New England listed as a contributor to the Grand Charity of the Grand Lodge of England in 1792, the year of the formation of the St. John’s Grand Lodge of Massachusetts:
It is noted that at the constitution of the St. John’s Grand Lodge of Massachusetts, African Lodge No. 459 was not invited as a constituent Lodge.
This, however, did not affect African Lodge No 459 in Boston, because they were still subordinate to the Grand Lodge of England. The constitution of the St. John’s Grand Lodge of Massachusetts in 1792 was an independent Grand Lodge with no ties to the Grand Lodge of England. As noted in the 1792 Quarterly Communication document, from the Grand Lodge of England, African Lodge No. 459 was still subordinate to their Grand Jurisdiction.
This raises a few questions regarding the constitution date declared on the banner hanging in the MWPHGLMA Grand Lodge Building. If African Lodge was subordinate to the Grand Lodge of England in 1792, how could they have been an Independent Grand Lodge in 1791? They were not a Grand Lodge in 1791. Further evidence of this fact is a letter written by Prince Hall, to Deputy Grand Master Rowland Holt, dated Nov. 16th, 1791, which states:
I embrace this opportunity to acquaint you that we sent by the bearer, our well-beloved Newport Daves, a letter to our worthy Deputy Grand Master, together with one guinea for charity to the Grand Lodge, which I hope you will receive safe as we have sent sundry times and have not known whether you received them or not. We sent ten dollars in August 1788 by Captain Scott, and by the Rev John Marrant on February 2nd 1790 one guinea, all of which we hope you have received and, if not, we should be glad if your Worship would inform us of it, that we may know how to conduct ourselves for the future, that when we send anything for so good a purpose you may receive it safe, be it ever so little. So, no more at this time, but I beg leave to subscribe your humble servant and loving Brother,
Prince Hall”[end of letter]
Even up to 1798, we find Prince Hall and African Lodge sending their contribution and affirming their allegiance as a subordinate under the Grand Lodge of England. In a letter from Prince Hall to Grand Secretary William White, dated May 24th, 1798, Hall writes:
“Boston May 24 1798
Thes comes with my Humble and best Respetes to you, and youre
the grand Lodge hoping thay may find you all in health
as by the Blessing of God thay leve me; I am sorrey to inform
you of the Death of our dear Brother Newport Daves who died
on his pacgge to London last winter by whom I sent you sum
charges Deleverd on Sant Johns Day June 24 which I beleve
you have not Recved whith a small sum of money for Chretey
to the Grand fund; he being the onley Brother that went to
London at that time and dar not trust aney other with money for
that Porpers : I sent you a Letter By Br pendel who was a Veseter
in our Lodge but have not Recved a ansear nor for sum
time Before from five year back which I much wounder at as
I am counfeden that the Afracan Lodge hath no juest grounds
of abencer nor I hope Never will : Dear Br I now send you six of the
above chargees thou sempel yet the sencear sentimentes of
of my hart on our Nobel order (for the Beggest Bungter may do
sum good) : I send these by a Trustey frend but not a Brother
But I hope he will be one when he Returns. Thearfour
You may send be a anser to this Letter with safty:
We have Entred into the Lodge sence the year 92 the following
Antoney Batles Nh of Bengale Fortan Truston of Dott
Shemethey Phelopes of Boston Gorge Hill o Ditto
Fortain Neckels of Ditto Prince Right Ditto
Fllow Pollerd Ditto John Trurel of Bosto
Cato Gage of Harvel We have last by Death
Cato Freeborn of Boston Willeam Clark
Gorge Joxon of Ditto Ritcherd Standney
Sere Morce of Horverel Cato Groves
Willeam Power of Providance and Recherd Pollerd
Dear Br I am happey to infor you that our Lodge is much astemed hear
by the wise and good and god grant that we may Behave allways
in such a maner as to be aprov’d of by the grat Artchtare, the grand
Lodge and all the world, till time shall be no more is the hartey
And pray of your Humbel and Loving Brother Prince Hall
To my well Beloved Welleam White Esq
24th May 1798
Prince Hall to
G.S.”[end of letter]
Another portion of the letter worth noting is the listing of Brothers who entered African Lodge No. 459 since 1792. There are four names that deserve our strictest attention: Willeam Power, Fortan Truston, Gorge Hill, and Prince Right. All four of these brothers were from Providence, RI. This immediately raises a question, that places the myth of a 1791 Grand Lodge into the light of truth.
According to the MWPHGLMA legend, African Grand Lodge would have been founded 7 years in 1798. It was allegedly constituted by 3 Lodges, one being in Providence, RI (Hiram #3). If Hiram Lodge #3 was operating in Providence, why would four brothers from Providence be entered in African Lodge No. 459 in Boston, and not Hiram Lodge #3?
This would bring into question whether Hiram Lodge #3 existed and whether it was the third constituent Lodge in the legend of African Grand Lodge 1791.
With evidence to prove that African Grand Lodge was not founded in 1791, the question is why would the MWPHGLMA adopt the date 1791?
The answer is simple, to assume for themselves the role as Mother Grand Lodge of Massachusetts (as a whole). The Grand Lodge of Massachusetts was formed March 19th, 1792, according to their proceedings:
1792 Proceedings of the Grand Lodge of Massachusetts
So, the MWPHGLMA chose a date, 1791, that preceded the constitution of the Grand Lodge of Massachusetts to assert a false narrative that they were the first Grand Lodge in Massachusetts. Masonic politics at its best.
Why the shift to 1808 date?
Now, I want to return to the date of 1808 and provide more light on the false narrative promoted and propagated by the MWPHGLMA. According to Grand Historian Bro. Ray T. Coleman, in his Prince Hall Masonic Education Class piece, published 2007:
“After the death of Prince Hall, on December 4, 1807, the brethren were eager to form a Grand Lodge. On June 24, 1808, they organized African Grand Lodge with the Lodges from Philadelphia, Providence, and Boston…”4
This history can be found on the website of the MWPHGLMA, as an officially adopted history regarding the formation of their Grand Lodge. The issue is that none of this is consistent with what we can read in the records of African Lodge No. 459. Here are a few things that we must set as a foundation to examine this version of events:
- If there are records available for African Lodge, can this event be found in those records?
- June 24th being St. John’s Day, there should be the proceedings of a Grand Lodge convention in the records of African Lodge.
- After 1808, if African Lodge No. 459 and the Lodges of Philadelphia and Providence formed a Grand Lodge, we should also find this in the African Lodge No. 459 of Philadelphia records as well.
- If there was a Grand Lodge constituted in Boston, under the name of African Grand Lodge, we should find no subordinate Lodge under her jurisdiction writing to or contributing anything to another Grand Lodge but African Grand Lodge.
African Lodge No. 459, up until 1827, nor Prince Hall, during his lifetime, ever saw themselves separate from the Masonic jurisdiction of the Grand Lodge of England. In fact, they continued to see themselves as one of her subordinates up until their declaration of independence in 1827.
As we travel through the records of African Lodge No. 459, the question should be contemplated, where did Bro. Ray T. Coleman and the MWPHGLMA get their revisionist history from? Because there is not a single document in the entirety of the archive that will support an 1808 Grand Lodge formation.
According to the revision of Bro. Ray T. Coleman, African Grand Lodge was instituted on June 24, 1808, by solemn convention. This first record I would like to present is the December 28th, 1807 record.
December 28th, 1807: African Lodge No. 459 records microfilm
This is the listing of officers of African Lodge No. 459 as of December 28th, 1807. A couple of notable things for historians and researchers are:
1. Nero Prince is called a Grand Master as well. This continues to prove that the term “Grand Master” and “Right Worshipful Master” were interchangeable in the officer’s designations of African Lodge. One cannot make the use of the term Grand Master a factor in determining whether African Lodge was a Grand Lodge, because the term was used as early as 1778 in African Lodge:
March 6, 1778, running registry for African Lodge No. 1
The running registry of March 6, 1778, for African Lodge, lists John Batt and Prince Hall as Grand Masters. Even if we accept the second position that the registry was written in 1782 (latest date on the document), we still have no historian or researcher claiming a Grand Lodge date for Boston earlier than 1827.
2. The Dec. 28th, 1807 record also records that the Lodge was still subordinate to the Grand Lodge of England, it declares:
“The Officers of the AFRICAN LODGE took their stations for the ensuing year…”
3. African Lodge officers were as listed:
CHIEF Steward (not Senior)
SECOND Steward (not Junior)
Secretary (who also served as the treasurer).
Nothing GRAND attached to any positions other than Grand Master.
The Minutes of African Lodge June 14th-December 4th 18087
The next meeting recorded, after the December 28th, 1807 record, is June 14th, 1808 minutes. Unlike African Lodge No. 459 of Philadelphia, African Lodge of Boston held periodic meetings throughout a Masonic year.
The point being, if African Grand Lodge was formed June 24, 1808, then surely, we should find the next meeting minutes recording the formation of a Grand Lodge.
With a review of the minutes, the next meeting for African Lodge was not held June 24th, 1808, but October 22, 1808:
“Boston October 22d 1808
It was agreed that Eri Lew Walter Morton a John Shorter should be raised to the sublime degree of Master Mason at the next meeting. Same evening Mater Prince pass the Chair in t prasances of Brothers Stwd. Bampfield Middleton and others
the same Evening George Bampfield was admitted a member”
According to the records, African Lodge did not have monthly or weekly meetings. Their meetings seem to have been as necessary. The next meeting was Nov. 2nd. The next, Nov. 9th, then Nov. 10th, and the last meeting of the year was held Dec. 6th.
What can be concluded from this record is that there was no meeting held June 24th, 1808, in which a Grand Lodge, under the designation African Grand Lodge was formed. Also noted is that the record does not record the operation of a Grand Lodge after the June 24, 1808 date. This is important to state, just in case opposition claim that the meeting was not recorded. Even if the meeting of the formation of the African Grand Lodge was not recorded, we do not find African Lodge in any of the minutes after the alleged date declaring or recording themselves as a Grand Lodge, until 1827.
Why would Bro. Ray T. Coleman and the MWPHGLMA claim the date June 24, 1808, as the day of the constitution of their Grand Lodge?
Very simple, to assume the self-proclaimed status of “Mother Grand Lodge” among so-called African American Grand Lodges. The MWPHGLMA could not effectively prove a June 24, 1791 date of formation, due to the Grand Lodge of England adamantly denying any dispensation to Prince Hall as a Provincial Grand Master of Massachusetts.
In a letter, dated April 12th, 1960, from the Grand Secretary of the United Grand Lodge of England to Edward R. Camen, Grand Secretary of the Grand Lodge of New York, it was stated:
“Prince Hall was never appointed Provincial Grand Master of any territory…”
April 12th, 1960 letter written from the Grand Secretary of the United Grand Lodge of England to the Grand Secretary of the Grand Lodge of New York
With the United Grand Lodge of England denying any commission and the date associated with Grimshaw’s revisionist history, the MWPHGLMA had no choice but to choose another start date for their Grand Lodge. The issue arose when it came to dating the Grand Lodge according to the records, they wouldn’t be the “Mother Grand Lodge”. The MWPHGLMA’s prestige is not just vested in the fact that Boston was the home of “Prince Hall Freemasonry”, but also that it was the Grand Womb from which all other Grand Lodges get their origin and start. The obstruction in the way was that the First Independent Grand Lodge of Pennsylvania was formed first!
First Independent African Grand Lodge: The first Grand Lodge erected for “Prince Hall Freemasons”
On December 28th, 1815 African Lodge No. 459 of Philadelphia’s Past Masters met to assume the powers of a Grand Lodge, under the designation, The African Grand Lodge of Free and Accepted Masons for and in the Jurisdiction of NORTH AMERICA:
The name and designation of the Grand Lodge is important. It is telling that the African Grand Lodge in Pennsylvania would claim the entire jurisdiction of North America, if there was a Grand Lodge operating in Boston, Massachusetts. The myth of the1808 African Grand Lodge of Boston has African Lodge No. 459 of Philadelphia, at the June 24th, 1808 Convention, as a constituent subordinate. Yet, we find them claiming the entire North America as their Grand Lodge jurisdiction 7 years later.
If African Grand Lodge of Boston was formed in 1808, with Philadelphia as a subordinate, for what cause would this subordinate, who had to know of its existence by virtue of their alleged attendance, claim all of North America?
There was no Grand Lodge operating in 1815 in Boston. Pennsylvania was not an attendee of any convention held in Boston prior to 1847. Another very telling fact provided by the records of Prince Hall Freemasonry is recorded in the minutes of the Convention to form the National Grand Lodge in 1847:
First African Grand Lodge of North America was African Grand Lodge of Pennsylvania
What we find is that up until 1848, the African Grand Lodge in Pennsylvania used FIRST in their name, declaring themselves the FIRST African Grand Lodge of North America. Without any records or documentation to substantiate a formation of a Grand Lodge in Boston in 1808, it must be concluded that the first Grand Lodge among Prince Hall masons was established in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.
The MWPHGLMA chose the date 1808 politically. Even though they could not declare themselves the first Grand Lodge formed in Massachusetts, they could at least claim to be the first among so-called African Americans.
So, as we can see from the documentation presented, the MWPHGLMA has shifted and changed their stating dates for their Grand Lodge. Said Grand Lodge has created a revisionist history to purport itself to be the Mother Grand Lodge among “Prince Hall Masons.” They know full well that the title of being the FIRST GRAND LODGE formed in the United States of America, among so-called Black people, belongs to the M. W. Prince Hall Grand Lodge of Pennsylvania.
It is not surprising to me why they would be so hostile to my research and publication, citing the error in the start of African Lodge No. 1. What is surprising is that they will not admit that they will change a start date when it benefits the agenda of protecting their prestige.
When did the MWPHGMA really form?
The MWPHGLMA actually formed in 1827. According to Bro. Ray T. Coleman’s historical revision, he writes:
“On June 24, 1808 they organized African Grand Lodge with the lodges from
Philadelphia, Providence and Boston. African Grand Lodge went about doing the things that Grand Lodges do — including chartering many lodges — and running into few problems, if any, until Boyer Lodge of New York petitioned for a charter.
Afiican Grand Lodge informed Boyer Lodge that they would issue them a charter, but there were some “doubting Thomas’s” in New York, who called on AGL to prove that they had the authority to issue charters. AGL sent them a copy of their charter, but Bayer Lodge returned an answer that the charter was like any other lodge charter and they could not see that AGL bad authority to issue charters.
As stated previously, AGL had been issuing charters for years, ever since they organized the Grand Lodge in 1808. But they could not prove to New York that they were really a Grand Lodge. There was no official pronouncement of when the event occurred. It was at this point that John I. Hilton proposed to the Grand Lodge, an official “Declaration of Independence”. They were to write such a declaration and place it in the newspaper, so that it would be official, once and for all.
And so it came to pass that on June 18, 1827, a declaration declaring African Grand Lodge “free from the government and control of our Mother Grand Lodge of England.. or any other lodges. We do therefore declare ourselves henceforth free. . . and do create (this Grand Lodge) under the title of African Grand Lodge No. 1, to have and exercise the same powers of other Grand Lodges, granting warrants and charters and establishing lodges among our brethren.. .“. An act made necessary because Boyer Lodge of New York refused to accept the authority of AGL.”
It is very important to read the bold portions, as we will see that much of this version of events is fabricated to protect the June 24, 1808 revision.
The fact of the matter is that African Lodge was not operating as a Grand Lodge in 1808 and had only issued a facsimile of their own charter from England to ONE LODGE, African Lodge No. 459 in Philadelphia in 1797. There is no record existing, at all, of a Lodge chartered by African Lodge in Providence prior to 1826. Let me make sure this is understood clearly. There is no record of a Lodge in Providence, RI, chartered by African Lodge prior to 1826.
There is not a single newspaper clipping, letter written to or from Providence in the archive of African Lodge. This is significant. There are plenty of correspondences between African Lodge Boston and Philadelphia in both sets of records; as well as newspaper clippings of Freemasonry being worked among so-called black people in Philadelphia from 1797 and beyond. There is verifiable and substantiated proof of a Lodge in Philadelphia, chartered by African Lodge. We can find no record to substantiate a Lodge in Providence, RI, by the name of Hiram Lodge #3, prior to 1826. I challenge the historical committee of the MWPHGLMA to produce the records of any kind of Lodge chartered by African Lodge of Boston, in Providence, prior to 1826.
Bro. Ray T. Coleman’s statement that African Lodge had been chartering Lodges for years is also noted, my question is to whom?
According to the accepted narrative, African Lodge allegedly chartered Boyer Lodge in 1812. In all the records of African Lodge, we find no contact with Boyer Lodge until 1826. The interesting part of that contact in 1826, is that Boyer was already established as a Lodge, according to the records. There is no other entry in the records of any other Lodge in New York chartered by African Lodge prior to 1826. This means no Union, Rising Sun or Hiram chartered by African Lodge. Boyer was the first, and only Lodge in New York, chartered by African Lodge of Boston.
Due to the story of Freemasonry in New York being written at this point by my good Brother and colleague, Bro. Ezekiel Bey, I will not go too far into this point at this time, and provide him with the space to produce that history. But, what can be said unequivocally, is that no Lodges in New York were chartered by African Lodge until 1827. So I ask again, who did African Lodge of Boston charter besides African Lodge No. 459 in Philadelphia (1797), Harmony Lodge No.1 in Providence, RI (1826), and Boyer Lodge No. 1 in New York (1827)?
And further evidence that 1808 was not a start date for African Grand Lodge in Boston, Bro. Ray T. Coleman, inadvertently contradicted his own revision:
“But they could not prove to New York that they were really a Grand Lodge… June 18, 1827, a declaration declaring African Grand Lodge “free from the government and control of our Mother Grand Lodge of England.. or any other lodges.”
If African Grand Lodge was already an independent Grand Lodge in 1808, why would they be declaring their freedom from control from what John T. Hilton stated was, “OUR MOTHER GRAND LODGE”?
Bro. Ray T. Coleman had to admit “There was no official pronouncement of when the event occurred.” If there was no official pronouncement then, in 1808, as stated by Bro. Coleman himself, and there is no record of it in the archive of African Lodge, from whence did the story of the 1808 African Grand Lodge originate?
The truth is, African Lodge operated as a subordinate Lodge under the jurisdiction of the Grand Lodge of England until 1827. We know that this is factual due to a letter written to the United Gand Lodge England, from African Lodge in 1824.
Letter written by African Lodge January 5, 1824
Here is the portion of the letter that needs to be focused on to make my point:
“[W]e, therefore humbly solicit the RENEWAL of OUR CHARTER to ourtherise us Legally to confer the same as we are now getting into a flourishing condition…we have not been able for several years to transmit monies and hold a regular communication; but we are permanently Established TO WORK CONFORMABLE TO OUR WARRANT and BOOK OF CONSTITUTION…”
If African Lodge constituted itself as a Grand Lodge in 1808, why would they be soliciting the United Grand Lodge of England for the RENEWAL of their WARRANT, and obligating themselves to WORK CONFORMABLE to a warrant UNDER England’s jurisdiction?
This is indisputable proof that African Lodge No. 459 was not a Grand Lodge in 1808.
The Honorable Joseph A. Walkes published, on the old Phylaxis website, the following by Bro. George Draffen, regarding the “traditional” story:
“On June 24, 1808, pursuant to a call from Nero Prince, the Deputy Grand Master, representatives of the three then existing lodges met in Boston and changed the name of the Grand Lodge to M. W. Prince Hall Grand Lodge, F & A M of Massachusetts, in memory of Prince Hall. There is no indication in the Prince Hall Masonic Year Book as to the author of this traditional story, but from its contents it is evident that the author drew very heavily upon Grimshaw and Davis. It is greatly to be regretted that an official publication should include a biography which is both woefully inaccurate and, in some cases, manifestly untrue. This can only be derogatory of a man whose life required no false vindication.”
African Lodge, after receiving no word from the Grand Lodge of England and being pressured by Boyer Lodge to provide them an “independent charter”, in 1826, African Lodge decided to declare their independence from England’s jurisdiction, and assume the powers of a Grand Lodge.
June 18th, 1827 Minutes of African Lodge No. 459
According to the Grand Charter created by African Grand Lodge for themselves, they affirmed:
Grand Charter of African Grand Lodge originally create June 26, 1827, but backdated to June 18, 1827
"Declaration of Independence by the AFRICAN GRAND LODGE in the City of Boston in the Commonwealth of Massachusetts and United States of America through her Officers Be it known all to whom it may concern, That we the undersigned Past Masters of the A.G.L. being regularly made so under a Charter given to our worthy Brothers Prince Hall, Boston Smith and Thomas Sanderson (colored brethren) by Lord Howard, Earl of Effingham, acting Grand Master under the authority of his Royal Highness, Henry Fredrick, Duke of Cumberland, etc etc. etc, Grand Master of the Most Ancient and Honorable Society of Free and Accepted Masons. Do assume and take upon ourselves the responsibility of declaring ourselves free from the government and control of our Mother, the Grand Lodge of England, by whom our charter dated the twenty ninth day of September A.L. 5784 A.D. 1784 bearing the Grand Seal of London was given-or, any other Lodge or Lodges whatsoever_Allowing ourselves to be bound however to the most excellent principles and solemn ties of Ancient Free Masonry. We do therefore declare ourselves henceforth free from said instrument dated as above. And do Create instead thereof this Charter, under the head and title of African Grand Lodge No. 1 to have and exercise the same power of other Grand Lodges, Granting Warrants and Charters, and establishing Lodges among our brethren for the good of Masonry, when they are found worthy. And to prove more fully our sincerity and to establish beyond doubt our intentions we have caused to be published in a paper called the Columbian Sentinel printed in this City said declaration. We do therefore agreeably to the power vested in us present this Grand Charter to our most esteem Brethren, Richard Potter, C. A. De Randamine and Rev. Thomas Paul Royal Arch Masons and their successors to hold and to keep the same for the special benefit of Masonry and for the good of our Brethren:-on whom we do solemnly enjoin strict observance to the ancient usages and customs that the same may be preserved unsullied and unremitted in its purity, to succeeding generations that they may under its [illegible] influence enjoy peace, union, prosperity and safety [illegible].
Done agreeably to, or in conformity with the Declaration of our Independence of the [unintelligible] and accepted by the Lodge on this eighteenth day of June A.L. 5827 A.D. 1827 wherein signed under our hands and seals.
John T. Hilton”
[End of Transcription]
Thus, we can see clearly from the records that Bro. Ray T. Coleman and the MWPHGLMA have couched an inaccurate start date in the very letterhead they used to issue a rebuttal to my work. They claim that the organization of their Grand Lodge was 1808, but we find this contradictory to the records of the very Lodge they are attempting to debate about.
Further, we have proved that they, themselves, have changed the start date in connection with their Grand Lodge, but failed to provide the true history for the sake of preserving the political agenda of usurping the title of First Independent African Grand Lodge, from Pennsylvania; and proclaim themselves the “Mother Grand Lodge” of “Prince Hall Freemasonry.”
The 1808 organization date in their letterhead is vested in Masonic politics.
[End of 1st Chapter]
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